Glossary definitions and etymology

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eng definition origin
air a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and minute amounts of other gases that surrounds the earth and forms its atmosphere fro: air < lat: aerem < aer < grc: ἀήρ <-> ang: lyft, luft
and used to connect grammatically coordinate words, phrases, or clauses ang: and, ond
angel one of a class of spiritual beings; a celestial attendant of God; in medieval angelology, angels constituted the lowest of the nine celestial orders (seraphim, cherubim, thrones, dominations or dominions, virtues, powers, principalities or princedoms, archangels, and angels) ang: engel / fro: angele < lat: angelus < grc: ἂγγελος
animal any member of the kingdom Animalia, comprising multicellular organisms that have a well-defined shape and usually limited growth, can move voluntarily, actively acquire food and digest it internally, and have sensory and nervous systems that allow them to respond rapidly to stimuli lat: animale <-> ang: deor
ant any of numerous black, red, brown, or yellow social insects of the family Formicidae, of worldwide distribution esp. in warm climates, having a large head with inner jaws for chewing and outer jaws for carrying and digging, and living in highly organized colonies containing wingless female workers, a winged queen, and, during breeding seasons, winged males, some species being noted for engaging in warfare, slavemaking, or the cultivation of food sources ang: æmette
apple the usually round, red or yellow, edible fruit of a small tree, Malus sylvestris, of the rose family ang: æppel
arm the upper limb of the human body, esp. the part extending from the shoulder to the wrist ang: earm
arrow a slender, straight, generally pointed missile or weapon made to be shot from a bow and equipped with feathers at the end of the shaft near the nock, for controlling flight ang: arwan < earh
ash(es) the powdery residue of matter that remains after burning ang: æsce
autumn; fall the season between summer and winter; in the Northern Hemisphere it is from the September equinox to the December solstice; in the Southern Hemisphere it is from the March equinox to the June solstice fro: autumpne < lat: autumnus <-> ang: hærfest
axe a tool with a bladed, usually heavy head mounted crosswise on a handle, used for felling trees or chopping wood ang: æx < æces
eng definition origin
barley a widely distributed cereal plant belonging to the genus Hordeum, of the grass family, having awned flowers that grow in tightly bunched spikes, with three small additional spikes at each node ang: bærlic < bere
bear any of the plantigrade, carnivorous or omnivorous mammals of the family Ursidae, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails ang: bera
beard the growth of hair on the face of an adult man, often including a mustache ang: beard
bed a piece of furniture upon which or within which a person sleeps, rests, or stays when not well ang: bed
bee any hymenopterous insect of the superfamily Apoidea, including social and solitary species of several families, as the bumblebees, honeybees, etc. ang: beo
beer an alcoholic beverage made by brewing and fermentation from cereals, usually malted barley, and flavored with hops and the like for a slightly bitter taste ang: beor
big large, as in size, height, width, or amount unknown
bird any warm-blooded vertebrate of the class Aves, having a body covered with feathers, forelimbs modified into wings, scaly legs, a beak, and no teeth, and bearing young in a hard-shelled egg ang: bridd <-> ang: fugol
black lacking hue and brightness; absorbing light without reflecting any of the rays composing it ang: blæc
blood the fluid that circulates in the principal vascular system of human beings and other vertebrates, in humans consisting of plasma in which the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are suspended ang: blod
blue the pure color of a clear sky; the primary color between green and violet in the visible spectrum, an effect of light with a wavelength between 450 and 500 nm fro: bleu < frk: blao <-> ang: blaw
boat a vessel for transport by water, constructed to provide buoyancy by excluding water and shaped to give stability and permit propulsion ang: bat
body the physical structure and material substance of an animal or plant, living or dead ang: bodig
bone the hard connective tissue forming the substance of the skeleton of most vertebrates, composed of a collagen-rich organic matrix impregnated with calcium, phosphate, and other minerals ang: ban
book a written or printed work of fiction or nonfiction, usually on sheets of paper fastened or bound together within covers ang: boc
bread a kind of food made of flour or meal that has been mixed with milk or water, made into a dough or batter, with or without yeast or other leavening agent, and baked ang: bread
bridge a structure spanning and providing passage over a river, chasm, road, or the like ang: brycge
brother a male offspring having both parents in common with another offspring; a male sibling ang: broþor
brown a dark tertiary color with a yellowish or reddish hue ang: brun
bull the male of a bovine animal, esp. of the genus Bos, with sexual organs intact and capable of reproduction ang: bula
butterfly any of numerous diurnal insects of the order Lepidoptera, characterized by clubbed antennae, a slender body, and large, broad, often conspicuously marked wings ang: buttorfleoge
eng definition origin
camel either of two large, humped, ruminant quadrupeds of the genus Camelus ang: camel < lat: camelus < grc: κάμηλος < heb: גמל (gamal)
candle a long, usually slender piece of tallow or wax with an embedded wick that is burned to give light ang: candel < lat: candela
cat a small domesticated carnivore, Felis domestica or Felis catus, bred in a number of varieties ang: cat < lat: cattus
cheek either side of the face below the eye and above the jaw ang: ceace, cece
cheese the curd of milk separated from the whey and prepared in many ways as a food ang: cyse < lat: caseus
cherry the fruit of any of various trees belonging to the genus Prunus, of the rose family, consisting of a pulpy, globular drupe enclosing a one-seeded smooth stone xno: cherise (mistaken as pl.) < fro: cherise < vlat: *ceresia < grc: κεράσιον
child a person between birth and full growth; a boy or girl ang: cild
chin the lower extremity of the face, below the mouth ang: cin
city; town a thickly populated area, having fixed boundaries and certain local powers of government fro: cite < citet < lat: civitatem < civitas; ang: tun
cloud a visible collection of particles of water or ice suspended in the air, usually at an elevation above the earth’s surface ang: clud <-> ang: weolcan
coal a black or dark-brown combustible mineral substance consisting of carbonized vegetable matter, used as a fuel ang: col
coffee a beverage consisting of a decoction or infusion of the roasted ground or crushed seeds (coffee beans) of the two-seeded fruit (coffee berry) of certain coffee trees ita: caffè < tur: kahve < ara: قهوة (qahwâ)
copper a malleable, ductile, metallic element having a characteristic reddish-brown color: used in large quantities as an electrical conductor and in the manufacture of alloys, as brass and bronze; symbol: Cu; atomic weight: 63.54; atomic number: 29; specific gravity: 8.92 at 20°C ang: coper < lat: cuprum < Cyprium (aes) < grc: Κύπριος
cotton a soft, white, downy substance consisting of the hairs or fibers attached to the seeds of plants belonging to the genus Gossypium, of the mallow family, used in making fabrics, thread, wadding, etc. fro: coton << ara: قطن (qutn)
cow the mature female of a bovine animal, esp. of the genus Bos ang: cu
crow any of several large oscine birds of the genus Corvus, of the family Corvidae, having a long, stout bill, lustrous black plumage, and a wedge-shaped tail ang: crawe
eng definition origin
daughter a female child or person in relation to her parents ang: dohtor
day the interval of light between two successive nights; the time between sunrise and sunset ang: dæg
death the act of dying; the end of life; the total and permanent cessation of all the vital functions of an organism ang: deað
desert a region so arid because of little rainfall that it supports only sparse and widely spaced vegetation or no vegetation at all fro: desert < lat: desertum
dictionary a book containing a selection of the words of a language, usually arranged alphabetically, giving information about their meanings, pronunciations, etymologies, inflected forms, etc., expressed in either the same or another language; lexicon mlat: dictionarium
dog any carnivore of the dog family Canidae, having prominent canine teeth and, in the wild state, a long and slender muzzle, a deep-chested muscular body, a bushy tail, and large, erect ears ang: docga <-> ang: hund
donkey; ass a long-eared, slow, patient, sure-footed domesticated mammal, Equus asinus, related to the horse, used chiefly as a beast of burden unknown; ang: assa <? sga: *as(s)in < lat: asinus
drop a small quantity of liquid that falls or is produced in a more or less spherical mass; a liquid globule ang: dropa
duck any of numerous wild or domesticated web-footed swimming birds of the family Anatidae, esp. of the genus Anas and allied genera, characterized by a broad, flat bill, short legs, and depressed body ang: duce <-> ang: ened
eng definition origin
eagle any of several large, soaring birds of prey belonging to the hawk family Accipitridae, noted for their size, strength, and powers of flight and vision fro: egle < pro: aigla < lat: aquila <-> ang: erne
ear the organ of hearing and equilibrium in vertebrates, in humans consisting of an external ear that gathers sound vibrations, a middle ear in which the vibrations resonate against the tympanic membrane, and a fluid-filled internal ear that maintains balance and that conducts the tympanic vibrations to the auditory nerve, which transmits them as impulses to the brain ang: eare
egg the roundish reproductive body produced by the female of certain animals, as birds and most reptiles, consisting of an ovum and its envelope of albumen, jelly, membranes, egg case, or shell, according to species non: egg <-> ang: æg
elephant either of two large, five-toed pachyderms of the family Elephantidae, characterized by a long, prehensile trunk formed of the nose and upper lip, including Loxodonta africana (African elephant), with enormous flapping ears, two fingerlike projections at the end of the trunk, and ivory tusks, and Elephas maximus (Indian elephant), with smaller ears, one projection at the end of the trunk, and ivory tusks almost exclusively in males fro: oliphant < lat: elephantus < grc: ἐλέφας
enemy a person who feels hatred for, fosters harmful designs against, or engages in antagonistic activities against another; an adversary or opponent fro: enemi < lat: inimicus <-> ang: feond
evening the latter part of the day and early part of the night ang: æfnung < æfnian < æfen
eye the organ of sight, in vertebrates typically one of a pair of spherical bodies contained in an orbit of the skull and in humans appearing externally as a dense, white, curved membrane, or sclera, surrounding a circular, colored portion, or iris, that is covered by a clear, curved membrane, or cornea, and in the center of which is an opening, or pupil, through which light passes to the retina ang: ege, eage
eng definition origin
face the front part of the head, from the forehead to the chin fro: face < vlat: *facia < lat: facies <-> ang: andwlita
family parents and their children, considered as a group, whether dwelling together or not lat: familia <-> ang: hiwscipe
father a male parent ang: fæder
fear a distressing emotion aroused by impending danger, evil, pain, etc., whether the threat is real or imagined; the feeling or condition of being afraid ang: fær <-> ang: ege; fyrhto
finger any of the terminal members of the hand, esp. one other than the thumb ang: fingor
fire a state, process, or instance of combustion in which fuel or other material is ignited and combined with oxygen, giving off light, heat, and flame ang: fyr
fish any of various cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates, having gills, commonly fins, and typically an elongated body covered with scales ang: fisc
flea any of numerous small, wingless bloodsucking insects of the order Siphonaptera, parasitic upon mammals and birds and noted for their ability to leap ang: fleah
flour the finely ground meal of grain, esp. the finer meal separated by bolting fro: flor < lat: florem < flos <-> ang: melu
flower the blossom of a plant fro: flor < lat: florem < flos <-> ang: blostma
foot the terminal part of the leg, below the ankle joint, on which the body stands and moves ang: fot
forest; wood a large tract of land covered with trees and underbrush; woodland fro: forest <? lat: forestem silvam; ang: wudu < widu
fox any of several carnivores of the dog family, esp. those of the genus Vulpes, smaller than wolves, having a pointed, slightly upturned muzzle, erect ears, and a long, bushy tail ang: fox
friend a person attached to another by feelings of affection or personal regard ang: freond
frog any tailless, stout-bodied amphibian of the order Anura, including the smooth, moist-skinned frog species that live in a damp or semiaquatic habitat and the warty, drier-skinned toad species that are mostly terrestrial as adults ang: frogga < frox, forsc, frosc
eng definition origin
garden a plot of ground, usually near a house, where flowers, shrubs, vegetables, fruits, or herbs are cultivated fro: gardin < vlat: hortus gardinus < frk: *gardo
goat any of numerous agile, hollow-horned ruminants of the genus Capra, of the family Bovidae, closely related to the sheep, found native in rocky and mountainous regions of the Old World, and widely distributed in domesticated varieties ang: gat
god the one Supreme Being, the creator and ruler of the universe ang: god
gold a precious yellow metallic element, highly malleable and ductile, and not subject to oxidation or corrosion; symbol: Au; atomic weight: 196.967; atomic number: 79; specific gravity: 19.3 at 20°C ang: gold
goose any of numerous wild or domesticated, web-footed swimming birds of the family Anatidae, esp. of the genera Anser and Branta, most of which are larger and have a longer neck and legs than the ducks ang: gos
green of the color of growing foliage, between yellow and blue in the spectrum ang: grene < groeni
guest a person who spends some time at another person’s home in some social activity, as a visit, dinner, or party ang: gæst, giest + non: gestr
eng definition origin
hair any of the numerous fine, usually cylindrical, keratinous filaments growing from the skin of humans and animals ang: hær
hand the terminal, prehensile part of the upper limb in humans and other primates, consisting of the wrist, metacarpal area, fingers, and thumb ang: hond
head the upper part of the body in humans, joined to the trunk by the neck, containing the brain, eyes, ears, nose, and mouth ang: heafod
heart a hollow, pumplike organ of blood circulation, composed mainly of rhythmically contractile smooth muscle, located in the chest between the lungs and slightly to the left and consisting of four chambers: a right atrium that receives blood returning from the body via the superior and inferior vena cavae, a right ventricle that pumps the blood through the pulmonary artery to the lungs for oxygenation, a left atrium that receives the oxygenated blood via the pulmonary veins and passes it through the mitral valve, and a left ventricle that pumps the oxygenated blood, via the aorta, throughout the body ang: heorte
hen the female of the domestic fowl ang: hen
honey a sweet, viscid fluid produced by bees from the nectar collected from flowers, and stored in nests or hives as food ang: hunig
horse a large, solid-hoofed, herbivorous quadruped, Equus caballus, domesticated since prehistoric times, bred in a number of varieties, and used for carrying or pulling loads, for riding, and for racing ang: hors <-> ang: eoh
hour a period of time equal to one twenty-fourth of a mean solar or civil day and equivalent to 60 minutes fro: hore < lat: hora < grc: ὣρα
house a building in which people live; residence for human beings ang: hus
human being any individual of the genus Homo, esp. a member of the species Homo sapiens frm: humain < lat: humanus <-> ang: man, mann
hunger a compelling need or desire for food ang: hungor
eng definition origin
I the nominative singular pronoun, used by a speaker in referring to himself or herself ang: ic
ice the solid form of water, produced by freezing; frozen water ang: is
iron a ductile, malleable, silver-white metallic element, scarcely known in a pure condition, but much used in its crude or impure carbon-containing forms for making tools, implements, machinery, etc.; symbol: Fe; atomic weight: 55.847; atomic number: 26; specific gravity: 7.86 at 20°C ang: isærn
island a tract of land completely surrounded by water, and not large enough to be called a continent ang: igland < ieg <-> ang: ealand
eng definition origin
key a small metal instrument specially cut to fit into a lock and move its bolt ang: cæg
kidney either of a pair of bean-shaped organs in the back part of the abdominal cavity that form and excrete urine, regulate fluid and electrolyte balance, and act as endocrine glands unknown
king a male sovereign or monarch; a man who holds by life tenure, and usually by hereditary right, the chief authority over a country and people ang: cyning
kitchen a room or place equipped for cooking ang: cycene < vlat: *cocina < lat: coquina
knee the joint of the leg that allows for movement between the femur and tibia and is protected by the patella; the central area of the leg between the thigh and the lower leg ang: cneo, cneow
knife an instrument for cutting, consisting essentially of a thin, sharp-edged, metal blade fitted with a handle ang: cnif < non: knifr
eng definition origin
lake a body of fresh or salt water of considerable size, surrounded by land fro: lack < lat: lacus
lamb a young sheep ang: lamb
language a body of words and the systems for their use common to a people who are of the same community or nation, the same geographical area, or the same cultural tradition fro: langage < vlat: *linguaticum < lat: lingua <-> ang: spræc, tunge
leg either of the two lower limbs of a biped, as a human being, or any of the paired limbs of an animal, arthropod, etc., that support and move the body non: leggr <-> ang: sceanca
letter (alphabet) a symbol or character that is conventionally used in writing and printing to represent a speech sound and that is part of an alphabet fro: lettre < lat: littera
letter (mail) a written or printed communication addressed to a person or organization and usually transmitted by mail fro: lettre < lat: littera <-> ang: ærendgewrit
life the condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms, being manifested by growth through metabolism, reproduction, and the power of adaptation to environment through changes originating internally ang: life
lion a large, usually tawny-yellow cat, Panthera leo, native to Africa and southern Asia, having a tufted tail and, in the male, a large mane fro: lion < lat: leonem < leo < grc: λέων
lip either of the two fleshy parts or folds forming the margins of the mouth and functioning in speech ang: lippa
louse any small, wingless insect of the order Anoplura (sucking louse), parasitic on humans and other mammals and having mouthparts adapted for sucking, as Pediculus humanus (body louse or head louse) and Phthirius pubis (crab louse or pubic louse) ang: lus
eng definition origin
man an adult male person, as distinguished from a boy or a woman ang: man, mann <-> ang: guma
meat the flesh of animals as used for food ang: mete <-> ang: flæsc
middle the point, part, position, etc., equidistant from extremes or limits ang: middel
milk an opaque white or bluish-white liquid secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals, serving for the nourishment of their young ang: meoluc, milc
minute a unit of time equal to one sixtieth of an hour, or 60 seconds fro: minut < mlat: minuta
mirror a reflecting surface, originally of polished metal but now usually of glass with a silvery, metallic, or amalgam backing fro: mireor < miradoir < mirer < vlat: *mirare < lat: mirari
money any circulating medium of exchange, including coins, paper money, and demand deposits fro: moneie < lat: moneta <-> ang: gield
monkey; ape any of a group of anthropoid primates characterized by long arms, a broad chest, and the absence of a tail, comprising the family Pongidae (great ape), which includes the chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan, and the family Hylobatidae (lesser ape), which includes the gibbon and siamang gml: *moneke / dum: *monnekijn; ang: apa
month any of the twelve parts, as January or February, into which the calendar year is divided ang: monað
mother a female parent ang: modor
mountain a natural elevation of the earth’s surface rising more or less abruptly to a summit, and attaining an altitude greater than that of a hill fro: montaigne < vlat: *montanea < *montaneus < lat: montanus < mons <-> ang: beorg, berg
mouse any of numerous small Old World rodents of the family Muridae, esp. of the genus Mus, introduced widely in other parts of the world ang: mus
mouth the opening through which an animal or human takes in food ang: muþ
music an art of sound in time that expresses ideas and emotions in significant forms through the elements of rhythm, melody, harmony, and color fro: musique < lat: musica < grc: μουσική
eng definition origin
name a word or a combination of words by which a person, place, or thing, a body or class, or any object of thought is designated, called, or known ang: nama
nature the material world, esp. as surrounding humankind and existing independently of human activities fro: nature < lat: natura
needle a small, slender, rodlike instrument, usually of polished steel, with a sharp point at one end and an eye or hole for thread at the other, for passing thread through cloth to make stitches in sewing ang: næðlæ, nedlæ
neighbo(u)r a person who lives near another ang: neahgebur, nehebur
new of recent origin, production, purchase, etc.; having but lately come or been brought into being ang: neowe, niowe < niwe
night the period of darkness between sunset and sunrise ang: niht, neaht, næht, neht
nose the part of the face or facial region in humans and certain animals that contains the nostrils and the organs of smell and functions as the usual passageway for air in respiration; in humans it is a prominence in the center of the face formed of bone and cartilage, serving also to modify or modulate the voice ang: nosu
number a numeral or group of numerals xno: noumbre < fro: nombre < lat: numerus
eng definition origin
oil any of a large class of substances typically unctuous, viscous, combustible, liquid at ordinary temperatures, and soluble in ether or alcohol but not in water: used for anointing, perfuming, lubricating, illuminating, heating, etc. xno/fro: olie < fro: oile < lat: oleum < grc: ἒλαιον
old (not new) having been for a comparatively long time ang: ald, eald
old (not young) far advanced in the years of one’s life ang: ald, eald
olive the fruit of an evergreen tree, Olea europaea, of Mediterranean and other warm regions fro: olive < lat: oliva < grc: ἐλαία
onion a plant, Allium cepa, of the amaryllis family, having an edible, succulent, pungent bulb xno: union < fro: oignon < lat: unionem < unio <-> ang: hramsa
or used to connect words, phrases, or clauses representing alternatives ang: oþþr < oþþe
owl any of numerous, chiefly nocturnal birds of prey, of the order Strigiformes, having a broad head with large, forward-directed eyes that are usually surrounded by disks of modified feathers ang: ule
ox the adult castrated male of the genus Bos, used chiefly as a draft animal ang: oxa
eng definition origin
page one side of a leaf of something printed or written, as a book, manuscript, or letter frm: page < fro: pagine < lat: pagina
pain physical suffering or distress, as due to injury, illness, etc. fro: peine < lat: poena < grc: ποινή
paper a substance made from wood pulp, rags, straw, or other fibrous material, usually in thin sheets, used to bear writing or printing, for wrapping things, etc. xno: paper < fro: papier < lat: papyrus
pea the round, edible seed of a widely cultivated plant, Pisum sativum, of the legume family enm: pease (mistaken for pl.) < ang: pise, piose < lat: pisa < pisum < grc: πίσον
peace the normal, nonwarring condition of a nation, group of nations, or the world xno: pes < fro: pais < lat: pacem < pax <-> ang: frið; sibb
peach the subacid, juicy, drupaceous fruit of a tree, Prunus persica, of the rose family fro: pesche < mlat: pesca < lat: pessica < persica < malum Persicum < grc: Περσικὸν μῆλον
pear the edible fruit, typically rounded but elongated and growing smaller toward the stem, of a tree, Pyrus communis, of the rose family ang: pere, peru < vlat: *pira < lat: pira < pirum
people the entire body of persons who constitute a community, tribe, nation, or other group by virtue of a common culture, history, religion, or the like xno: people / fro: peupel < lat: populus <-> ang: folc
pepper a pungent condiment obtained from various plants of the genus Piper, esp. from the dried berries, used whole or ground, of the tropical climbing shrub Piper nigrum ang: pipor < lat: piper < grc: πιπέρι << san: पिप्पलि (pippali)
petroleum; oil an oily, thick, flammable, usually dark-colored liquid that is a form of bitumen or a mixture of various hydrocarbons, occurring naturally in various parts of the world and commonly obtained by drilling; used in a natural or refined state as fuel, or separated by distillation into gasoline, naphtha, benzene, kerosene, paraffin, etc. mlat: petroleum
pig any stout, cloven-hoofed artiodactyl of the Old World family Suidae, having a thick hide sparsely covered with coarse hair, a disklike snout, and an often short, tasseled tail; now of worldwide distribution and hunted or raised for its meat and other products ang: *picg <-> ang: swin; fearh
pigeon; dove any bird of the family Columbidae, having a compact body and short legs fro: pijon <? vlat: *pibionem < lat: pipionem < pipio; ang: dufe-
planet any of the eight large heavenly bodies revolving about the sun and shining by reflected light: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, or Neptune in the order of their proximity to the sun ang: planet < fro: planete < lat: planeta < grc: πλανήτης (ἀστήρ)
plum the drupaceous fruit of any of several trees belonging to the genus Prunus, of the rose family, having an oblong stone ang: plume < vlat: *pruna < lat: prunum < grc: πρόυνον < πρόυμνον
poison a substance with an inherent property that tends to destroy life or impair health fro: puison < lat: potionem < potio <-> ang: ator
potato the edible tuber of a cultivated plant, Solanum tuberosum, of the nightshade family spa: patata < Carib: batata
prayer a devout petition to God or an object of worship fro: preiere < vlat: *precaria < lat: precaria <-> ang: gebed
prophet a person who speaks for God or a deity, or by divine inspiration fro: prophete < lat: propheta < grc: προφήτης
eng definition origin
question a sentence in an interrogative form, addressed to someone in order to get information in reply xno: questiun / fro: question < lat: quaestionem < quaestio
eng definition origin
rain water that is condensed from the aqueous vapor in the atmosphere and falls to earth in drops ang: regn
red any of various colors resembling the color of blood; the primary color at one extreme end of the visible spectrum, an effect of light with a wavelength between 610 and 780 nm ang: read
religion a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, esp. when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs xno: religiun < fro: religion < lat: religionem < religio
river a natural stream of water of fairly large size flowing in a definite course or channel or series of diverging and converging channels fro: riviere < vlat: *riparia < lat: riparius <-> ang: ea
road a long, narrow stretch with a smoothed or paved surface, made for traveling by motor vehicle, carriage, etc., between two or more points ang: rad <-> ang: weg
rock a large mass of stone forming a hill, cliff, promontory, or the like ang: rocc / fro: roque < mlat: rocca < vlat: *rocca
roof the external upper covering of a house or other building ang: hrof <-> ang: þæc
room a portion of space within a building or other structure, separated by walls or partitions from other parts ang: rum
rose the flower of any of the wild or cultivated, usually prickly-stemmed, pinnate-leaved, showy-flowered shrubs of the genus Rosa ang: rose < lat: rosa << grc: ῥόδον
eng definition origin
salt a crystalline compound, sodium chloride, NaCl, occurring as a mineral, a constituent of seawater, etc., and used for seasoning food, as a preservative, etc. ang: sealt
sand the more or less fine debris of rocks, consisting of small, loose grains, often of quartz ang: sand
school an institution where instruction is given, esp. to persons under college age ang: scol < lat: schola < grc: σχολή
sea the salt waters that cover the greater part of the earth’s surface ang: sæ
season one of the four periods of the year (spring, summer, autumn, and winter), beginning astronomically at an equinox or solstice, but geographically at different dates in different climates fro: seison < lat: sationem < satio
second the sixtieth part of a minute of time fro: seconde < mlat: secunda < lat: secunda pars minuta
sheep any of numerous ruminant mammals of the genus Ovis, of the family Bovidae, closely related to the goats, esp. Ovis aries, bred in a number of domesticated varieties ang: sceap, scep
ship a vessel, esp. a large oceangoing one propelled by sails or engines ang: scip
silk the soft, lustrous fiber obtained as a filament from the cocoon of the silkworm ang: sioloc, seoloc << Asian language
silver a white, ductile metallic element, used for making mirrors, coins, ornaments, table utensils, photographic chemicals, conductors, etc.; symbol: Ag; atomic weight: 107.870; atomic number: 47; specific gravity: 10.5 at 20°C ang: seolfor
sister a female offspring having both parents in common with another offspring; female sibling ang: sweostor, swuster + non: systir
sky the region of the clouds or the upper air; the upper atmosphere of the earth non: sky <-> ang: heofon
snake any of numerous limbless, scaly, elongate reptiles of the suborder Serpentes, comprising venomous and nonvenomous species inhabiting tropical and temperate areas ang: snaca <-> ang: næddre
snow a precipitation in the form of ice crystals, mainly of intricately branched, hexagonal form and often agglomerated into snowflakes, formed directly from the freezing of the water vapor in the air ang: snaw
soap a substance used for washing and cleansing purposes, usually made by treating a fat with an alkali, as sodium or potassium hydroxide, and consisting chiefly of the sodium or potassium salts of the acids contained in the fat ang: sape
son a male child or person in relation to his parents ang: sunu
spider any of numerous predaceous arachnids of the order Araneae, most of which spin webs that serve as nests and as traps for prey ang: spiþra
spoon a utensil for use in eating, stirring, measuring, ladling, etc., consisting of a small, shallow bowl with a handle ang: spon
spring(time) the season between winter and summer; in the Northern Hemisphere from the vernal equinox to the summer solstice; in the Southern Hemisphere from the autumnal equinox to the winter solstice enm: springing time, spring-time <-> ang: lent
star any of the heavenly bodies, except the moon, appearing as fixed luminous points in the sky at night ang: steorra
steel any of various modified forms of iron, artificially produced, having a carbon content less than that of pig iron and more than that of wrought iron, and having qualities of hardness, elasticity, and strength varying according to composition and heat treatment; generally categorized as having a high, medium, or low-carbon content ang: style
stone the hard substance, formed of mineral matter, of which rocks consist ang: stan
storm a disturbance of the normal condition of the atmosphere, manifesting itself by winds of unusual force or direction, often accompanied by rain, snow, hail, thunder, and lightning, or flying sand or dust ang: storm
street a public thoroughfare, usually paved, in a village, town, or city, including the sidewalk or sidewalks ang: stret, stræt < lat: strata < via strata
sugar a sweet, crystalline substance, C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁, obtained chiefly from the juice of the sugarcane and the sugar beet, and present in sorghum, maple sap, etc.; used extensively as an ingredient and flavoring of certain foods and as a fermenting agent in the manufacture of certain alcoholic beverages fro: sucre < mlat: succarum < ara: سكر (sukkar) < ope: شکر (šakar) < san: शर्करा (śarkarā)
summer the season between spring and autumn; in the Northern Hemisphere from the summer solstice to the autumnal equinox; in the Southern Hemisphere from the winter solstice to the vernal equinox ang: sumor
swan any of several large, stately aquatic birds of the subfamily Anserinae, having a long, slender neck and usually pure-white plumage in the adult ang: swan
eng definition origin
table an article of furniture consisting of a flat, slablike top supported on one or more legs or other supports ang: tabele / fro: table < lat: tabula
tea a somewhat bitter, aromatic beverage that is prepared by infusion in hot water of the dried and prepared leaves of a shrub, Camellia sinensis msa: teh + zho (Amoy dialect): (t'e) / zho: (chá)
tiger a large, carnivorous, tawny-colored and black-striped feline, Panthera tigris, of Asia, ranging in several races from India and the Malay Peninsula to Siberia ang: tigras (pl.) / fro: tigre < lat: tigris < grc: τίγρις
time the system of those sequential relations that any event has to any other, as past, present, or future; indefinite and continuous duration regarded as that in which events succeed one another ang: tima
tobacco any of several plants belonging to the genus Nicotiana, of the nightshade family, esp. one of those species, as Nicotiana tabacum, whose leaves are prepared for smoking or chewing or as snuff spa: tabaco < an Arawakan (probably Taino) language of the Caribbean
today this present day ang: todæge
tomato any of several plants belonging to the genus Lycopersicon, of the nightshade family, native to Mexico and Central and South America, esp. the widely cultivated species Lycopersicon lycopersicum, bearing a mildly acid, pulpy, usually red fruit eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable enm: tomate < spa: tomate < nah: tomatl
tomorrow the day following today enm: to morewe < ang: to morgenne
tongue the usually movable organ in the floor of the mouth in humans and most vertebrates, functioning in eating, in tasting, and, in humans, in speaking ang: tunge
tooth one of the hard bodies or processes usually attached in a row to each jaw, serving for the prehension and mastication of food, as weapons of attack or defense, etc., and in mammals typically composed chiefly of dentin surrounding a sensitive pulp and covered on the crown with enamel ang: toð
tower a building or structure high in proportion to its lateral dimensions, either isolated or forming part of a building ang: torr / fro: tur < lat: turris
tree a plant having a permanently woody main stem or trunk, ordinarily growing to a considerable height, and usually developing branches at some distance from the ground ang: treo, treow <-> ang: beam
truth the true or actual state of a matter ang: triewð, treowð
tulip any of various plants belonging to the genus Tulipa, of the lily family, cultivated in many varieties, and having lance-shaped leaves and large, showy, usually erect, cup-shaped or bell-shaped flowers in a variety of colors nld / deu: tulpe / fra: tulipe << tur: tülbent < fas: دوابند / dulband
eng definition origin
valley an elongated depression between uplands, hills, or mountains, esp. one following the course of a stream xno: valey / fro: valee < vlat: *vallata < lat: vallis <-> ang: dæl
village a small community or group of houses in a rural area, larger than a hamlet and usually smaller than a town fro: village < lat: villaticum < villa <-> ang: ðorp
vinegar a sour liquid consisting of dilute and impure acetic acid, obtained by acetous fermentation from wine, cider, beer, ale, or the like; used as a condiment, preservative, etc. fro: vinaigre < vin + aigre
voice the sound or sounds uttered through the mouth of living creatures, esp. of human beings in speaking, shouting, singing, etc. fro: voiz < lat: vocem < vox <-> ang: stefn
eng definition origin
wall any of various permanent upright constructions having a length much greater than the thickness and presenting a continuous surface except where pierced by doors, windows, etc.; used for shelter, protection, or privacy, or to subdivide interior space, to support floors, roofs, or the like, to retain earth, to fence in an area, etc. ang: weall < lat: vallum <-> ang: wag
war a conflict carried on by force of arms, as between nations or between parties within a nation; warfare, as by land, sea, or air ang: wyrre, werre < fro: werre < frk: *werra <-> guð; heaðo; hild; wig
water a transparent, odorless, tasteless liquid, a compound of hydrogen and oxygen, H₂O, freezing at 0°C and boiling at 100°C, that in a more or less impure state constitutes rain, oceans, lakes, rivers, etc.; it contains 11.188% hydrogen and 88.812% oxygen, by weight ang: wæter
we nominative plural of I ang: we
weather the state of the atmosphere with respect to wind, temperature, cloudiness, moisture, pressure, etc. ang: weder
week a period of seven successive days ang: wice
wheat the grain of any cereal grass of the genus Triticum, esp. Triticum aestivum, used in the form of flour for making bread, cakes, etc., and for other culinary and nutritional purposes ang: hwæte
white of the color of pure snow, etc.; reflecting nearly all the rays of sunlight or a similar light ang: hwit
wind air in natural motion, as that moving horizontally at any velocity along the earth’s surface ang: wind
window an opening in the wall of a building, the side of a vehicle, etc., for the admission of air or light, or both, commonly fitted with a frame in which are set movable sashes containing panes of glass non: vindauga <-> ang: eagþyrl
wine the fermented juice of grapes, made in many varieties, such as red, white, sweet, dry, still, and sparkling, for use as a beverage, in cooking, in religious rites, etc., and usually having an alcoholic content of 14% or less ang: win < lat: vinum
wing either of the two forelimbs of most birds and of bats, corresponding to the human arms, that are specialized for flight non: vængr <-> ang: feðra (pl.)
winter the cold season between autumn and spring in northern latitudes; in the Northern Hemisphere from the winter solstice to the vernal equinox; in the Southern Hemisphere from the summer solstice to the autumnal equinox ang: winter
wolf any of several large carnivorous mammals of the genus Canis, of the dog family Canidae, esp. Canis lupus, usually hunting in packs, formerly common throughout the Northern Hemisphere but now chiefly restricted to the more unpopulated parts of its range ang: wulf
woman the female human being, distinguished from man ang: wimman < wifman <-> ang: wif; cwean
wool the fine, soft, curly hair that forms the fleece of sheep and certain other animals, characterized by minute, overlapping surface scales that give it its felting property ang: wull
word a unit of language, consisting of one or more spoken sounds or their written representation, that functions as a principal carrier of meaning ang: word
world the earth or a part of it, with its inhabitants, affairs, etc. ang: woruld, worold
worm any of numerous long, slender, soft-bodied, legless, bilaterally symmetrical invertebrates, including the flatworms, roundworms, acanthocephalans, nemerteans, gordiaceans, and annelids ang: wurm, wyrm
eng definition origin
year a period of 365 or 366 days, in the Gregorian calendar, divided into 12 calendar months, now reckoned as beginning Jan. 1 and ending Dec. 31 ang: gear, ger
yellow a color like that of egg yolk, ripe lemons, etc.; the primary color between green and orange in the visible spectrum, an effect of light with a wavelength between 570 and 590 nm ang: geolu, geolwe
yesterday on the day preceding this day ang: geostran dæg < gestaron
young being in the first or early stage of life or growth; youthful; not old ang: geong

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