International Phonetic Alphabet

IPA char IPA name phonetic description
a lower-case a open front unrounded vowel
ɐ turned a near-open central vowel
ɑ script a open back unrounded vowel
ɒ turned script a open back rounded vowel
æ ash; lower-case a-e ligature near-open front unrounded vowel
b lower-case b voiced bilabial plosive
ʙ small capital b voiced bilabial trill
ɓ hooktop b voiced bilabial implosive
β beta voiced bilabial fricative
c lower-case c voiceless palatal plosive
ç c cedilla voiceless palatal fricative
ɕ curly-tail c voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative
d lower-case d voiced dental or alveolar plosive
ɖ right-tail d voiced retroflex plosive
ɗ hooktop d voiced dental or alveolar implosive
ð eth voiced dental fricative
ʣ d-z ligature voiced alveolar affricate
ʤ d-ezh ligature voiced postalveolar affricate
ʥ d-curly-tail-z ligature voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
e lower-case e close-mid front unrounded vowel
ɘ reversed e close-mid central unrounded vowel
ɛ epsilon open-mid front unrounded vowel
ɜ reversed epsilon open-mid central unrounded vowel
ɞ closed reversed epsilon open-mid central rounded vowel
ə schwa mid central vowel
ə superscript schwa mid central vowel release
f lower-case f voiceless labiodental fricative
ɡ opentail g voiced velar plosive
ɠ hooktop g voiced velar implosive
ɢ small capital g voiced uvular plosive
ʛ hooktop small capital g voiced uvular implosive
ɣ gamma voiced velar fricative
ˠ superscript gamma velarized
ɤ ram’s horns close-mid back unrounded vowel
h lower-case h voiceless glottal fricative
ʜ small capital h voiceless epiglottal fricative
ħ barred h voiceless pharyngeal fricative
ɦ hooktop h voiced glottal fricative
ɥ turned h voiced labial-palatal approximant
ɧ hooktop heng simultaneous voiceless postalveolar and velar fricative
ʰ superscript h aspirated
i lower-case i close front unrounded vowel
ɪ small capital i near-close near-front unrounded vowel
ɨ barred i close central unrounded vowel
j lower-case j voiced palatal approximant
ɟ barred dotless j voiced palatal plosive
ʄ hooktop barred dotless j voiced palatal implosive
ʝ curly-tail j voiced palatal fricative
ʲ superscript j palatalized
k lower-case k voiceless velar plosive
l lower-case l voiced dental or alveolar lateral approximant
ʟ small capital l voiced velar lateral approximant
ɬ belted l voiceless dental or alveolar lateral fricative
ɭ right-tail l voiced retroflex lateral approximant
ɫ l with tilde velarized voiced dental or alveolar lateral approximant
ɮ l-ezh ligature voiced dental or alveolar lateral fricative
ˡ superscript l lateral release
m lower-case m voiced bilabial nasal
ɱ left-tail m (at right) voiced labiodental nasal
ɯ turned m close back unrounded vowel
ɰ turned m, right leg voiced velar approximant
n lower-case n voiced dental or alveolar nasal
ɴ small capital n voiced uvular nasal
ɳ right-tail n voiced retroflex nasal
ɲ left-tail n (at left) voiced palatal nasal
ŋ eng voiced velar nasal
superscript n nasal release
o lower-case o close-mid back rounded vowel
ɔ open o open-mid back rounded vowel
ø slashed o close-mid front rounded vowel
ɵ barred o close-mid central rounded vowel
œ lower-case o-e ligature open-mid front rounded vowel
ɶ small capital o-e ligature open front rounded vowel
p lower-case p voiceless bilabial plosive
ɸ phi voiceless bilabial fricative
q lower-case q voiceless uvular plosive
r lower-case r voiced dental or alveolar trill
ʀ small capital r voiced uvular trill
ɾ fish-hook r voiced dental or alveolar tap
ɽ right-tail r voiced retroflex flap
ɹ turned r voiced dental or alveolar approximant
ɻ turned r, right tail voiced retroflex approximant
ʁ inverted small capital r voiced uvular fricative
ɺ turned long-leg r voiced alveolar lateral flap
s lower-case s voiceless alveolar fricative
ʃ esh voiceless postalveolar fricative
ʂ right-tail s (at left) voiceless retroflex fricative
t lower-case t voiceless dental or alveolar plosive
ʈ right-tail t voiceless retroflex plosive
θ theta voiceless dental fricative
θ superscript theta voiceless dental fricative release
ʨ t-curly-tail-c ligature voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
ʦ t-s ligature voiceless dental or alveolar affricate
ʧ t-esh ligature voiceless postalveolar affricate
u lower-case u close back rounded vowel
ʉ barred u close central rounded vowel
ʊ upsilon near-close near-back rounded vowel
v lower-case v voiced labiodental fricative
ʋ cursive v voiced labiodental approximant
ʌ turned v open-mid back unrounded vowel
w lower-case w voiced labial-velar approximant
ʍ turned w voiceless labial-velar fricative
ʷ superscript w labialized
x lower-case x voiceless velar fricative
ˣ superscript x voiceless velar fricative release
χ chi voiceless uvular fricative
y lower-case y close front rounded vowel
ʏ small capital y near-close near-front rounded vowel
ʎ turned y voiced palatal lateral approximant
z lower-case z voiced alveolar fricative
ʒ ezh; tailed z voiced postalveolar fricative
ʐ right-tail z voiced retroflex fricative
ʑ curly-tail z voiced alveolo-palatal fricative
ʔ glottal stop glottal plosive
ʡ barred glottal stop epiglottal plosive
ʕ reversed glottal stop voiced pharyngeal fricative or approximant
ʢ barred reversed glottal stop voiced epiglottal fricative or approximant
ˤ superscript reversed glottal stop pharyngealized
ʘ bull’s eye bilabial click
ǀ pipe dental click
ǂ double-barred pipe palatoalveolar click
ǁ double pipe alveolar lateral click
ǃ exclamation point (post)alveolar click
ʼ apostrophe ejective
under-ring voiceless
over-ring voiceless
circumflex  
wedge rising contour
subscript wedge voiced
umlaut centralized
subscript umlaut breathy voiced
superscript tilde nasalized
subscript tilde creaky voiced
superimposed tilde velarized or pharyngealized
double acute accent (over) extra high level
acute accent (over) high level
macron mid level
grave accent (over) low level
double grave accent (over) extra low level
subscript seagull linguolabial
subscript bridge dental
inverted subscript bridge apical
subscript square laminal
subscript right half-ring more rounded
subscript left half-ring less rounded
subscript plus advanced
under-bar retracted
over-cross mid-centralized
advancing sign advanced tongue root
retracting sign retracted tongue root
right hook rhoticity
corner no audible release
raising sign raised
raising sign raised
lowering sign lowered
lowering sign lowered
syllabicity mark syllabic
subscript arch non-syllabic
-͡- top tie bar affricate or double articulation
vertical stroke (superior) primary stress
vertical stroke (inferior) secondary stress
length mark long
half-length-mark half-long
breve extra-short
-. period syllable break
-| vertical line (thick) minor (foot) group
-‖ double vertical line (thick) major (intonation)
-‿- bottom tie bar linking (absence of a break)
-↗ upward diagonal arrow global rise
-↘ downward diagonal arrow global fall
-↓ down arrow downstep
-↑ up arrow upstep
extra-high tone letter extra high level
high tone letter high level
mid tone letter mid level
low tone letter low level
extra-low tone letter extra low level

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